Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 天津去年商品房销售额近翻倍房价涨幅明显趋缓.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
除了P2P贷款领域发展迅速以外，今年还涌现出一些网络银行和贷款机构——比如腾讯(Tencent)的微众银行(WeBank)、阿里巴巴(Alibaba)的网商银行(Mybank)，以及蚂蚁金融(Ant Financial)的芝麻贷(Sesame Credit)。
But if the U.S. can avert that Washington-made crisis, the outlook for workers finding jobs is actually looking pretty good for next year. For one thing, the damage of superstorm Sandy will have to be repaired, meaning jobs in construction and retail. Businesses, meanwhile, which have held off investing and hiring because of uncertainty over the fiscal outlook, might finally open their wallets. That means more jobs, too.[qh]
'She enjoys it and we don't force her to do anything she doesn't want to do.'
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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
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Gitanjali said she wanted to further refine the device so it could eventually go on the market.
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Wishing you all the blessings of a beautiful New Year season.愿你拥有新年所有美好的祝福。
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I was asked by one CEO to hire the long-legged girl with the long dark hair even though she didn't have the right skills. Another time, I was instructed not to hire anyone with children because the company had too many people leaving for soccer games. That kind of thing happens all the time.
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当时，身为首席执行官的库克也承受着压力，因为苹果除了从iPhone攫取利润之外，缺乏清晰的产品开发方向。维权投资者嗅到了血腥，开始围攻这家公司，打头的是大卫?艾因霍恩(David Einhorn)，接着是卡尔?伊坎(Carl Icahn)，他们游说改变苹果的经营和财务管理方式。伊坎施压要求苹果筹集巨额债务，向股东返还1500亿美元，并敦促苹果发布包括电视机在内的更多产品。
The study is available online.